Thursday, February 23, 2017

Flag of the Yorkshire Hunters Regiment in 1745

During the Jacobite invasion of England in 1745, many loyal Whigs (supporters of George II) raised regiments of troops to aid their king against his competitor, Bonnie Prince Charlie. On 24 September 1745, several Whig gentlemen of Yorkshire decided to raise a unit to aid George II. Their contribution included both a regiment of foot called the Yorkshire Blues, and a regiment of cavalry called the Yorkshire Hunters. I detailed the flag of the Yorkshire Blues in a previous post (see and am now recreating the flag of the Yorkshire Hunters.
Detail of the Yorkshire Hunters Flag

A unique eyewitness engraving shows the Yorkshire Blues and Hunters on parade, with glorious detail of their colours. I am focusing here on the Hunters' colours. In the engraving, they are carried by the squadron (see the detail picture at right). While this view is leaves most of the details unknown. the artist included a "close-up" of the flag's details in a cartouche near the bottom of the picture.

The center of the flag is occupied by a burst of flames with thunderbolts emanating from it. This device was also used in the flag of the French Compagnies Franches de la Marine. (1) I do not know what connection, if any, this device has to Yorkshire or its nobility. Nevertheless, this is certainly what is depicted in the engraving.

Since the engraving is in black and white, some artistic license had to be used to render the flag into color. The flames and thunderbolts are depicted in their natural colors, following the Compagnies Franches de la Marine flag. However, the ground and border of the flag was more difficult. I chose green for the ground and red for the border, with golden fringes. Why?
The flag carried by the regiment

Green appears to be a distinguishing color for the Yorkshire Hunters. While their coats were blue with red cuffs, they wore green cockades. (2) Green cockades are highly unusual, particularly in the midst of the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion, where white cockades and black cockades marked Jacobites and Hanoverians, respectively. Stuart Reid (3) suggests that these were adopted as a compliment to General Oglethorpe. However, the color green was also associated with hunters in military service. Examples from 1745 include the Prussian Feldjager corps, the infantry of the Chausseurs de Fischer, and, in Great Britain, the mounted Georgia Rangers, who were brigaded with the Yorkshire Hunters. Perhaps this color was intended to mark their “hunter” status, for many of the troopers were fox-hunting gentlemen. (4)

My reconstruction of the Yorkshire Hunters flag

Regardless of why green cockades were chosen, they did distinguish the Yorkshire Hunters and therefore I have colored the flag’s field green. The original illustration shows a definite border around the flag, and this I have colored red, just like the Hunters’ facing color. The fringe is gold, based on a slightly later (1751 Warrant) convention that the metallic fringe follow the unit’s button color: gold buttons, gold fringe on the flag. (5)

Finally, I would like to thank everyone who commented on my previous Yorkshire Blues flag. All your comments encouraged me and I fully intend to continue creating Jacobite flags from contemporary illustrations or existent relics. Stay tuned!

If you are a wargamer and would like to deploy a Yorkshire Hunters flag in your armies, go ahead; however, an attribution to the artist would be appreciated :).

(2) Reid, Stuart, Cumberland's Culloden Army 1745-46.  Oxford: Osprey, 2012. pg. 46.
(3) ibid., pg. 46
(4)Duffy, Christopher, Fight for a Throne: the Jacobite '45 Reconsidered. West Midlands: Helion and Co, 2015, pg. 346
(5) British Regimental Drums and Colors has reproduced the 1751 Clothing Warrant at

Friday, February 17, 2017

The Calormene Armed Forces

Map of Narnia drawn by Pauline Baynes
Calormen appears in the far south
Founded by a band of outlaws from Archenland, the Calormene Empire grew to encompass most of the land south of Narnia and Archenland, making it the largest power in the Narnian world. Under the leadership of their ruler, the Tisroc (may-he-live-forever), Calormen waged wars against Narnia and Archenland at various times, along with battling rebels in its Western provinces. 

The Calormene army was made up of two types of soldier: infantry and cavalry. I will be covering the organization of the infantry in this post. The basic Calormene infantry organization was a company, which mustered 30 men. Each company was subdivided into two sections of 14 men each under a junior officer, making 15 fighting men in each section. In the Battle of Stable Hill, Rishda Tarkaan sends forward one section against Tirian while keeping his second section in reserve. This plan fails, as the first section is thrashed by Tirian’s Narnians and forced to retreat to the protection of the second section. At a critical point in the battle, another company of 30 men arrives to Rishda’s assistance.

While the Calormene infantry doubtless has other unit sizes, the only other one we know is the division of 1,000 men. Prince Rabadash refers to this size as being the only force required to conquer Narnia in six weeks. From the way in which Rabadash talks, doubtless senior Calormene commanders are used to commanding forces much larger than this.

Each Calormene soldier is generally equipped with a scimitar, small round shield, and spear. In battle, a Calormene typically relies on his spear, using his sword as back-up. However, many Calormene infantrymen are skilled with fighting with the sword only. Rishda Tarkaan’s force was made up of these men. Officers carry only a sword and shield. All ranks wear mail and helmets.

Another important part of the Calormene army is the signaler. He is armed with a big bull-hide drum and is responsible for communicating between companies. It seems probable that he is not a part of the company itself, but is attached when a company (or larger force) may be operating on its own (such as Rishda Tarkaan’s force at Stable Hill). These drums can convey important signals: the only two which are mentioned are “Assistance is required” and “Relief is on its way.”

The Calormene army also musters some archers, but these appear to serve a function more like mounted infantry. They ride to battle, then dismount to use their bows. The Calormenes do not use their archers as skirmishers who ride, fire at the enemy, and then retreat to do it again.

Calormene cavalry serves in units of 50 men and carry spears or battle-axes. Swords and round shields are a necessity, whether the trooper wields a spear or battle-axe. The Calormene cavalry also includes chariots, but whether they are carriers for infantry or mobile platforms for archers is unknown. These are never used in battle against Narnia or Archenland, because of the difficulty of crossing the great desert and after that, the mountains of Archenland.

The Tisroc (may-he-live-forever) also possesses a navy, made up of swift galleys and great ships.  Neither of these are based at the capital, Tashbaan, much to the annoyance of Prince Rabadash. The Calormenes likely possess royal dockyards and harbors in which their fleet is based. Their fleet contains at least twenty great (as distinguished from small) ships of war, which are used to capture Cair Paravel in The Last Battle.

Many of these Calormene soldiers (in fact, everything but the chariots and archers) have been drawn by Pauline Baynes in her delightful Narnian illustrations.

Sources: The Horse and His Boy by C. S. Lewis
The Last Battle by C. S. Lewis

Friday, February 10, 2017

Narnia: Battle of Anvard Maps

Click on image to enlarge and read the fine print.  This
order of battle serves as a legend for the maps.
The siege and relief of Anvard is one of the best-described battles in C. S. Lewis' series The Chronicles of Narnia.  Anvard, the capital city of Archenland, occupies a strategic location and is targeted by a detachment of the Calormene army under Prince Rabadash.  The Calormenes lay siege to Anvard, but King Edmund and Queen Lucy lead a relief force to raise the siege.  This battle is found in the book The Horse and His Boy.

The table above shows the order of battle at the Siege of Anvard.

The first map shows the position of the relative armies when King Edmund's Narnian army arrives to relieve the siege.  Rabadash has sighted the Narnians and remounted 100 of his men to contest the Narnian advance.  A division of dismounted cavalry and archers guards his left flank, while the fourth division continues the siege with a battering ram.

The second map shows King Edmund's battle plan as it develops.  His main force collides head-on with Prince Rabadash's mounted troops, occupying their attention.  Six giants attempt to force back the Calormene left, and it is here that Rabadash's mail shirt is broken by a giant's spiked boot.  However, Edmund's main thrust is on his left, where a division of Great Cats swiftly circles the Calormene positions, avoiding their main body of cavalry. The Cats then rout the Calormene reserve horses.

The third map shows the heat of battle.  The Great Cats are driving away the Calormene horses, and the two battle lines have now met.  Prince Rabadash has moved to command the main body of his men, and he and Edmund nearly fight hand-to-hand, but the ebb and flow of battle separates them.

In the fourth map, the tide of battle has turned in favor of the Narnians.  The reserve horses have routed and the Great Cats are now attacking the division of Calormenes that was still prosecuting the siege of Anvard.  With these Calormenes distracted, the defenders of Anvard (under King Lune) sally out.  The giants are forcing back the Calormene left wing and Narnian archers are moving up in support.  In the main battle line, most of Rabadash's main force is routing for the relative safety of the woods.  This is now forcing the Calormenes to contract their forces for a last stand.

The fifth map shows the hopeless position when Chlamash, the last effective leader of the Calormenes, surrenders to Edmund.  Encircled with the Great Cats on his right, Giants on his left, the Narnians to his front and King Lune behind, there is no escape for the remaining Calormene troops.  I have diverted one division of Edmund's army to watch the routed Calormenes in the woods and prevent them from rallying.  While this is not mentioned in the book, it seemed like a wise tactical decision in the situation.  Rabadash's banner is not portrayed as Rabadash is no longer commanding the Calormenes.  Instead the hole in his mail shirt caught on a hook in the castle wall when he jumped off a mounting block.  He is thus left in the humiliating position of being stuck to the castle wall by his shirt.  What happens to Rabadash later?  To find out, you will have to read The Horse and His Boy.

As I was creating these maps, I was struck with the level of detail which C. S. Lewis included in The Horse and His Boy.  These maps merely illustrate, not create, the deployments and clashes which are described in the text.  In addition, these maps demonstrate that both King Edmund and Prince Rabadash used tactically sound battle plans.  Perhaps this is no surprise since C. S. Lewis served as a 2nd Lieutenant during World War I and could write from experience.

Monday, February 6, 2017

Narnia: Order of Battle at the Siege of Anvard

For many years, I have been a Narnian buff, reading and rereading these wonderful medieval tales.  Recently I attempted to schematize and diagram some of the military information found in the seven Chronicles of Narnia.  This entry shows the order-of-battle for both sides at the Battle of Anvard, the main battle in The Horse and His Boy.

The siege of Anvard was conceived by the Calormene Prince Rabadash, who planned to capture this strategically important city to facilitate an invasion of the northern countries of Narnia and Archenland.  Rabadash and his two hundred cavalry ride across the desert, but the surprise they planned is thwarted by a young boy named Shasta.  Shasta alerts King Lune of Archenland, who has time to barricade himself in Anvard and withstand a siege.  Shasta and Chervy the stag then call upon King Edmund the Just of Narnia for a relief army to rescue the besieged King Lune.  In a series of maps, I will chronicle the progress of the Siege of Anvard, but for now, here is the order of battle.

Click on image to enlarge and read the fine print

Most of the details are taken from the book The Horse and His Boy, though necessarily there is some guesswork.  I have broken down the Rabadash's force into four divisions (I have called them divisions even though they could be known by another name), as the text indicated that this is the way in which the Calormene army is arranged.  Each division of 50 cavalrymen is commanded by a Tarkaan (a great lord), with the fifth Tarkaan serving as Rabadash's 2nd-in-command.  These Tarkaans are distributed in the order in which the Hermit of the Southern Marches names them.  It seems to be a logical assumption that the Hermit would refer to them by decreasing seniority, i.e. 2nd-in-command first, commander of 1st Division, commander of 2nd Division, etc.

The Narnian force likely outnumbers the Calormenes, though probably not by much.  They are aided by a sortie from the castle of Anvard as soon as the Narnian Division of Great Cats neutralized the 1st Division of Calormenes.  Stay tuned for a map of the battle of Anvard, with troop movements plotted and identified.